What Causes Eczema and How to Find Relief

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Eczema, a term that often surfaces in conversations about skin health, remains a puzzle for many. Predominantly seen in Australians of all ages, this skin condition affects physical well-being and emotional health. In this article, we demystify eczema, explore its causes, and offer practical tips for relief.

Eczema, or atopic dermatitis, is a chronic skin condition marked by itchy, inflamed skin. While it’s common in children, adults aren’t spared. Understanding what triggers eczema and how to manage these flare-ups is crucial for those living with this condition. Stay tuned as we delve into the world of eczema, uncovering its causes, symptoms, and effective strategies for managing it.

Common Triggers of Eczema

Eczema, a condition characterised by itchy, dry skin, can be bewildering and frustrating. It’s essential to recognise that eczema triggers can vary significantly from person to person. Identifying these triggers is a vital step in managing symptoms of eczema effectively.

Sensitive Skin and Environmental Factors

Individuals with sensitive skin are more prone to eczema flare-ups. Environmental irritants like pollen, dust mites, and pet dander can exacerbate symptoms. In some cases, extreme weather conditions – either too hot or too cold – can also trigger eczema, leading to very dry, itchy skin.

Food Allergies

Food allergies are a common trigger for many with eczema. Common culprits include dairy, nuts, soy, and gluten. These allergies can cause the immune system to overreact, resulting in skin inflammation and eczema symptoms.

Hay Fever and Allergic Reactions

Allergic conditions like hay fever or allergic contact dermatitis can coincide with eczema. When the body encounters an allergen, it can respond with a skin reaction, leading to atopic eczema flare-ups.


Stress doesn’t just affect the mind; it can also impact the skin. Stress is known to exacerbate eczema symptoms, leading to more severe flare-ups.

Skin Infections

Bacterial, viral, or fungal skin infections can worsen eczema. A compromised skin barrier, common in eczema sufferers, makes the skin more susceptible to infections, which can, in turn, trigger more severe eczema symptoms.

Contact with Irritants

Everyday substances like soaps, detergents, and certain fabrics can cause contact dermatitis, aggravating eczema. It’s essential for those with eczema to identify and avoid such irritants to prevent eczema flare-ups.

Hormonal Changes

Hormonal fluctuations, particularly in women, can trigger or worsen eczema. This is often observed during pregnancy, menstruation, or menopause.

Genetics and Immune System Factors

A family history of eczema or other allergic conditions often plays a role. Additionally, an overactive immune system can contribute to the development of eczema.

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Genetic Factors in Eczema

When exploring the causes of eczema, understanding the genetic aspect can help in better managing and anticipating the symptoms of eczema.

Atopic Eczema – A Genetic Link

Atopic eczema, the most common form of eczema, often runs in families. If parents or siblings have eczema, asthma, or hay fever, the likelihood of developing atopic eczema increases. This genetic tendency leads to an overactive immune system response, causing skin inflammation and flare-ups.

Skin Barrier Dysfunction

Genetics can influence the skin barrier’s structure and function. A weak or damaged skin barrier loses moisture more easily, leading to very dry skin, a hallmark of eczema. This dysfunction makes the skin more susceptible to irritants and allergens, which can trigger eczema flare-ups.

Immune System Factors

Eczema is closely linked to an overactive immune system. Genetic factors can cause the immune system to react more strongly to perceived threats, leading to inflammation. This reaction often results in the red, itchy, and scaly skin associated with eczema.

Allergic Tendencies

A genetic predisposition to allergies can also contribute to eczema. Conditions like allergic contact dermatitis, where the skin reacts to specific substances, are more common in individuals with a family history of allergies or eczema.

Severity of Symptoms

Genetics can influence the severity of eczema. Some individuals may experience only mild symptoms, while others suffer from moderate or severe eczema, characterised by extensive, inflamed, and itchy areas of skin.

Susceptibility to Infections

People with eczema often have a compromised skin barrier, making them more prone to bacterial skin infections. This susceptibility is partly influenced by genetic factors affecting skin integrity and immune response.

Recognising the genetic factors in eczema is vital for early diagnosis and effective management. While we cannot change our genetics, understanding their impact can help in developing personalised strategies to minimise flare-ups and improve the quality of life for those with eczema.

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Environmental Allergens and Eczema

Environmental allergens play a significant role in triggering eczema flare-ups. For those grappling with eczema, understanding and managing these triggers is key to achieving better skin health.

  • Pollen and Seasonal Allergies: Pollen, a common environmental allergen, can exacerbate eczema symptoms, especially during spring and summer. Seasonal changes often bring about an increase in itchy, inflamed skin for many eczema sufferers.

  • Dust Mites: These microscopic creatures thrive in household dust and are a major trigger for many with eczema. Their waste products can irritate the skin and trigger immune responses, leading to eczema flare-ups.

  • Pet Dander: Animal fur and dander are common triggers for eczema. Pets like dogs and cats shed tiny flakes of skin that can cause allergic reactions, resulting in itchy, red skin.

  • Mould Spores: Mould, both indoors and outdoors, releases spores that can trigger eczema. These spores, when inhaled or in contact with the skin, can lead to an allergic reaction, aggravating eczema symptoms.

  • Environmental Pollutants: Urban environments with higher pollution levels can also trigger eczema. Pollutants can weaken the skin barrier, making the skin more susceptible to irritants and allergens.

  • Climate and Humidity: Extreme weather conditions – very dry or excessively humid – can impact eczema. Low humidity can dry the skin, while high humidity can increase sweating and irritation.

  • Irritants in Water: Hard water, containing high levels of minerals like calcium and magnesium, can also aggravate eczema. These minerals can dry out the skin, leading to more severe symptoms.

Managing exposure to environmental allergens is a key aspect of controlling eczema. Simple steps like using allergen-proof covers, maintaining a clean home environment, and using air purifiers can significantly reduce the impact of these allergens. 

Stress and Emotional Factors in Eczema

While eczema is often considered a physical condition, it’s closely intertwined with emotional health. Stress and emotional factors can significantly influence the severity and frequency of eczema flare-ups.

  • Stress-Induced Flare-Ups: Stress is a well-known trigger for eczema. When stressed, the body releases hormones like cortisol, increasing inflammation and weakening the immune system. This can lead to a worsening of eczema symptoms, such as itchy, inflamed skin.

  • The Emotional Toll of Eczema: Living with eczema can be emotionally challenging. The visible nature of the condition can affect self-esteem and social interactions, leading to feelings of anxiety and depression. These emotional factors can, in turn, exacerbate eczema symptoms, creating a vicious cycle.

  • Anxiety and Its Effects: Anxiety, closely linked to stress, can trigger or worsen eczema. The body’s response to anxiety can aggravate skin conditions, leading to more severe flare-ups.

  • Sleep Disturbances: Eczema can disrupt sleep due to itching and discomfort. Poor sleep can increase stress levels, further aggravating eczema and resulting in more intense itching and discomfort.

  • Mind-Skin Connection: The mind-skin connection is a vital aspect of eczema. Emotional stressors can trigger a physical response in the skin, highlighting the importance of managing stress and emotional well-being as part of eczema treatment.

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Food Sensitivities

Food sensitivities can play a significant role in developing and exacerbating eczema symptoms. Identifying and managing these sensitivities is a key aspect of controlling eczema flare-ups.

  • Common Food Triggers: Certain foods are known to trigger eczema in sensitive individuals. These include dairy products, eggs, nuts, soy, wheat, and fruits like citrus. These foods can cause an immune system response that leads to skin inflammation and aggravation of eczema.

  • Identifying Sensitivities: Identifying food sensitivities can be challenging. Keeping a food diary and noting eczema flare-ups can help pinpoint potential triggers. An elimination diet, under medical supervision, can also be effective in determining which foods exacerbate eczema symptoms.

  • The Gut-Skin Connection: The health of the gut plays a crucial role in skin health. An imbalance in gut flora can affect the immune system and skin, potentially leading to eczema flare-ups. Probiotics and a healthy diet can help maintain gut health, which may, in turn, benefit skin health.

  • Allergy Testing: Allergy testing can be a useful tool in identifying specific food sensitivities. Skin prick or blood tests can help determine which foods may trigger eczema flare-ups.

  • Nutritional Balance: While managing food sensitivities is important, maintaining a balanced and nutritious diet is also essential. Eliminating certain foods should not lead to nutritional deficiencies. Consulting a dietitian or nutritionist can help ensure a balanced diet while avoiding trigger foods.

Food sensitivities are a complex aspect of eczema management. Individuals with eczema can significantly reduce their symptoms and improve their skin health by identifying and addressing individual food triggers and maintaining a balanced diet.

Lifestyle Habits and Eczema

Lifestyle habits play a pivotal role in the management of eczema. Making informed choices about daily routines can significantly impact the frequency and severity of eczema flare-ups.

  • Skincare Routine: A consistent skincare routine is essential for managing eczema. Using gentle, fragrance-free cleansers and moisturisers can help maintain the skin’s natural barrier, reducing dryness and irritation. Moisturising immediately after bathing can also lock in moisture, helping to prevent very dry skin.

  • Bathing Habits: Overbathing, especially in hot water, can strip the skin of natural oils, leading to dryness and exacerbating eczema. Short, lukewarm baths or showers are recommended. Adding colloidal oatmeal or baking soda to bath water can soothe irritated skin.

  • Clothing Choices: What you wear can affect eczema. Clothes made from soft, breathable fabrics like cotton are best, as they minimise skin irritation. Avoiding tight-fitting or scratchy materials like wool can also help prevent flare-ups.

  • Stress Management: Since stress is a known trigger for eczema, adopting stress-reduction techniques such as mindfulness, yoga, or regular exercise can be beneficial. These activities can help lower stress levels, reducing the likelihood of eczema flare-ups. Learn nine ways to look after your mental health.

  • Sleep Patterns: Good sleep hygiene is important for overall health and can influence eczema. Lack of sleep can increase stress and weaken the immune system, potentially worsening eczema symptoms. Establishing a regular sleep schedule can help improve skin health.

  • Avoiding Irritants: Being aware of and avoiding environmental irritants like harsh detergents, perfumes, and certain cleaning products can reduce eczema symptoms. Non-biological laundry products are often better suited for those with sensitive skin.

  • Diet and Hydration: A balanced diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and omega-3 fatty acids can support skin health. Staying hydrated by drinking plenty of water also helps maintain skin hydration, which can benefit those with eczema.

  • Smoking and Alcohol: Smoking and excessive alcohol consumption can negatively impact skin health. Quitting smoking and moderating alcohol intake can improve eczema symptoms and overall well-being.

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Choosing the Right Skincare Products for Eczema

Navigating the world of skin care products is essential for those with eczema, as the right choices can significantly alleviate symptoms and prevent eczema flare-ups. Understanding what to look for and avoid can make a big difference in skin health.

  • Moisturisers: Moisturisers are a cornerstone of eczema care. Look for products labelled as “fragrance-free” and “hypoallergenic”. Creams and ointments are generally more effective than lotions for very dry skin, as they contain more oil and less water. Applying moisturiser immediately after bathing helps lock in moisture.

  • Gentle Cleansers: Avoid harsh soaps and opt for mild, fragrance-free cleansers. Non-soap cleansers with a neutral pH are less likely to irritate sensitive skin. Avoiding products with alcohol, dyes, and other irritants can also help prevent eczema flare-ups.

  • Prescription Creams and Ointments: Topical corticosteroids are commonly used to reduce inflammation and itching. It’s important to use these as directed by a healthcare professional, as overuse can lead to skin thinning.

  • Sunscreens: Sun protection is essential, but some sunscreens can irritate eczema. Mineral-based sunscreens containing zinc oxide or titanium dioxide are less likely to cause irritation. Always opt for sunscreens that are fragrance-free and formulated for sensitive skin.

  • Ingredients to Avoid: Skincare products containing alcohol, fragrances, dyes, and certain preservatives can trigger eczema flare-ups. Reading labels and being aware of potential irritants is important in selecting suitable products.

  • Natural and Organic Products: While ‘natural’ and ‘organic’ products can be appealing, they aren’t always the best choice for eczema. Some natural ingredients, like essential oils, can be irritants. Always patch-test new products before full application.

  • Bath Additives: Colloidal oatmeal or baking soda can be added to bath water for their soothing properties. However, avoid bubble baths and other additives that might dry out the skin.

  • Allergy Testing for Contact Dermatitis: If allergic contact dermatitis is suspected, patch testing can identify specific allergens to avoid in skincare products.

Selecting the right skincare products is a personalised journey for those with eczema. Through trial and error and with the guidance of a dermatologist, individuals can find products that soothe and protect their skin, helping to manage symptoms and improve quality of life.

Exploring Effective Treatment Options for Eczema Management

Effective treatment of eczema involves a combination of skincare strategies, lifestyle changes, and medical treatments. With advancements in healthcare, accessing treatments has become more convenient, including options like getting online treatments delivered directly to your door through hub.health.

  • Topical Treatments: Topical corticosteroids are commonly prescribed for reducing inflammation and itching associated with eczema. They come in various strengths and should be used as directed by a healthcare provider. Non-steroidal topical medications are also effective for some individuals.

  • Systemic Medications: For moderate to severe eczema, systemic medications that affect the entire body may be necessary. These can include oral corticosteroids, immunosuppressants, or biologic drugs. These are typically prescribed when topical treatments are not sufficient.

  • Phototherapy: Phototherapy or light therapy involves exposing the skin to controlled amounts of natural sunlight or artificial UV light. This treatment can be effective for chronic eczema that doesn’t respond to topical treatments.

  • Wet Wrap Therapy: This involves applying topical steroids and moisturisers to the affected area, then wrapping it with wet bandages to enhance the medication’s effectiveness and hydration of the skin.

  • Stress Management and Counselling: Since stress can exacerbate eczema, stress-reduction techniques and counselling can be part of an effective treatment plan.

  • Convenient Online Treatments: For those seeking convenience and personalised care, hub.health offers an innovative solution. Our platform allows you to consult with healthcare professionals online, receive personalised treatment plans, and have your eczema treatments delivered to your door. This can be particularly beneficial for those with busy schedules or limited access to dermatologists.

Effective eczema treatment is a multifaceted approach that may include a combination of medical treatments, lifestyle changes, and supportive therapies. With the added convenience of services like hub.health, managing eczema has become more accessible, allowing individuals to focus on improving their skin health and overall well-being.

Get eczema treatments online with hub.health. Start your consult today!

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