Emotional Eating: Understanding the Link Between Food and Feelings

eating behaviors, eating disorder, binge eating

It’s no secret that your relationship with food goes beyond nourishment; it intertwines with your emotions and mental well-being. Understanding the link between emotions and food choices can shed light on the complex nature of eating behaviours, helping to develop healthier approaches to nourishing the body and mind. In this article, we delve into the world of emotional eating, exploring its causes and strategies for cultivating a well-balanced relationship with food.

The Role of Emotions in Food Choices

Emotions can play a significant role in the decision-making process at meal times. When you experience emotions like stress, sadness, boredom, or happiness, your brain seeks comfort and pleasure. In search of that comfort, you may turn to certain foods that you associate with positive emotions or provide a temporary sense of relief.

For example, when stressed, you might reach for a bag of chips or a tub of ice cream. These foods can offer a momentary escape and a feeling of comfort. Similarly, when you’re feeling down, you may crave foods high in sugar or carbohydrates, as they can trigger the release of dopamine and serotonin, the body’s “feel-good” hormones.

Now, emotional eating isn’t necessarily a bad thing. Food can provide comfort and pleasure, and enjoying your favourite foods in moderation contributes to well-balanced food choices. However, over time, the brain learns to seek foods that stimulate pleasure in response to negative feelings. This learned response can lead to a pattern where emotional eating becomes the default coping mechanism for dealing with difficult feelings.

Common Triggers for Emotional Eating

Emotional eating can be influenced by various triggers that impact your relationship with food. By recognising these triggers, you can gain insight into your eating patterns and develop healthier strategies to manage them.

Chronic stress

Chronic stress is one of the major triggers for emotional eating. When you experience regular stress or anxiety, your body can produce a higher level of circulating cortisol, known as the “stress hormone”. High cortisol levels have been linked to increased appetite, greater motivation to eat, weight gain, and a higher BMI.

Stress can influence your brain chemistry and cause you to crave foods that are usually highly processed, such as chips, chocolate and ice cream. These foods are scientifically designed to stimulate the pleasure receptors in the brain, providing temporary feelings of comfort and euphoria. However, this effect is short-lived, and once it wears off, you can be left feeling unsatisfied, leading to a cycle of seeking out more of these foods.

Stress eating is not solely a matter of willpower or self-control; chemical changes in the body contribute to this cycle. Relying on highly processed foods for emotional relief is a temporary solution that fails to address the underlying cause of stress.

By understanding and recognising the interplay between stress, hormones, and emotional eating, you can take proactive steps to manage stress and break the cycle. Developing a comprehensive approach that combines stress management techniques, healthy eating habits, and emotional well-being can empower you to overcome stress-related emotional eating and promote a healthier relationship with food.


Boredom can trigger emotional eating due to its association with mindless eating behaviours. When you feel bored, it can be easy to develop a habit of reaching for food as a way to distract yourself or find entertainment. This habit can start from a young age when eating becomes intertwined with moments of boredom.

To break the habit of emotional eating from boredom, focus on increasing self-awareness of your triggers and finding alternative activities to engage in when boredom strikes, such as hobbies, exercise, or spending time with others. By consciously choosing distractions and practising mindful eating, you can develop healthier coping mechanisms and reduce the tendency to turn to food for emotional comfort when bored.

Sadness, loneliness and happiness

Emotional eating can also be triggered by sadness, loneliness, or even happiness. During times of sadness or loneliness, you may seek comfort in food to fill an emotional void. On the other hand, when experiencing happiness or celebration, you may be more likely to indulge in food. During special occasions, it’s completely fine to enjoy food and celebrations with others, just be mindful of your emotions and try to make food choices that align with your emotions rather than eating mindlessly.

How Emotional Eating Impacts Well-being

In the short term, emotional eating may provide temporary relief and comfort. When you eat in response to your emotions, you may experience a momentary sense of pleasure or distraction from your feelings. However, this relief is often short-lived and can be followed by feelings of guilt, shame, or regret.

Physical health

Over time, emotional eating can take a toll on physical health. Consuming high-calorie, low-nutrient foods to cope with emotions can lead to weight gain and an increased risk of chronic conditions like type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and metabolic disorders. Additionally, emotional eating can disrupt natural hunger and fullness cues, making it challenging to maintain a healthy relationship with food.

Natural hunger and fullness cues

Your body has impressive built-in mechanisms to communicate hunger and fullness cues. Recognising and honouring these signals is essential in breaking the habit of emotional eating. When you’re truly hungry, you may experience physical sensations like a rumbling stomach, low energy, or difficulty concentrating. Pay attention to these cues and nourish your body with balanced meals and snacks.

Similarly, tuning in to your body’s fullness cues is crucial. Notice when you start feeling satisfied, when the hunger subsides, and when you feel comfortably full. By practising mindful eating and honouring these natural cues, you can develop a healthier relationship with food and make more conscious choices about when and how much to eat, reducing the reliance on emotional eating.

Emotional well-being

Emotional eating not only affects your physical health but also significantly impacts your emotional well-being. When you rely on food as your main way to cope with emotions, it can hinder your progress in finding healthier ways to manage and express those emotions. By solely depending on food, you miss opportunities to address the underlying issues causing emotional distress, creating a cycle of emotional eating without effectively resolving the root causes.

Identifying Physical and Emotional Hunger

Do you ever find it challenging to distinguish between true physical hunger and the urge to eat based on emotions? Understanding the difference between emotional and physical hunger is key to developing a healthier relationship with food.

Emotional hunger often comes on suddenly and feels urgent. It’s driven by specific emotions like stress, boredom, sadness, or even happiness. When emotionally hungry, you tend to crave specific comfort foods that provide temporary relief or distraction. It’s like an intense desire to eat something specific, often unrelated to physical nourishment.

On the other hand, physical hunger develops gradually and can be felt as an empty or gnawing sensation in the stomach. It is a biological signal that the body needs fuel for energy and nourishment. Physical hunger is not tied to specific emotions and can be satisfied by various foods.

To identify emotional hunger, it’s helpful to pause and check in with yourself. Ask yourself if there is a specific emotion triggering your desire to eat. Take a moment to reflect on whether you are physically hungry or seeking food to cope with emotions. Emotional hunger tends to fade or disappear once you find alternative ways to address and manage your feelings. In comparison, physical hunger persists and is satisfied by nourishing your body with a well-balanced meal or snack.

By becoming more aware of your body’s signals and distinguishing between emotional and physical hunger, you can make mindful choices about when and what to eat. When you find yourself reaching for food, take a moment to tune in and assess your hunger. Ask yourself if you genuinely need nourishment or if there are other ways to address your emotions without turning to food.

Identifying Emotional Eating Patterns

By using the Hunger-Fullness Cue Scale (HFCS) and keeping a mood and food journal, you can effectively identify and track your emotional eating patterns and gain valuable insights into your behaviours and emotions surrounding food.

The Hunger Fullness Cue Scale (HFCS)

The Hunger Fullness Cue Scale (HFCS) is a tool used to assess an individual’s subjective experience of hunger and fullness. It is a self-report scale that helps you gauge your current hunger or fullness level. The scale typically ranges from 0 to 10, with 0 representing extreme hunger and 10 representing extreme fullness.

The HFCS considers physical sensations and psychological factors associated with hunger and fullness. It can help you become more aware of your eating patterns and make more informed decisions regarding food intake.

By regularly using the Hunger Fullness Cue Scale, you can better understand your body’s signals and learn to differentiate between true hunger and other cues that may trigger eating, such as emotional or environmental factors. This increased awareness can help promote mindful eating and maintain a balanced approach to food consumption.

Keeping a Food and Mood Journal

A food and mood journal can be a helpful tool in recognising and understanding emotional eating habits. By tracking your food intake, emotions and mood at meal times, you can gain insights into any patterns or connections between your emotions and eating behaviours.

This journaling practice allows you to identify triggers for emotional eating and become more aware of its impact on your well-being. It provides an opportunity to reflect on your relationship with food, helping you make more mindful and informed choices that support a healthier balance between emotions and eating.

Breaking the Cycle: Strategies to Combat Emotional Eating

If you’ve ever found yourself caught in the cycle of emotional eating, rest assured there are effective strategies to help you break the cycle and establish healthier habits. You can regain control over your relationship with food and emotions by implementing the following techniques.

  • Pause and Reflect: When the urge to eat strikes, take a moment to pause and reflect on your emotions. Ask yourself what you truly feel and why you’re reaching for food. By bringing awareness to your emotions, you can start addressing them directly instead of using food as a temporary fix.
  • Practice Mindful Eating: Slow down and savour your meals. Pay attention to the flavours, textures, and sensations of each bite. Eating mindfully allows you to fully enjoy your food and recognise when you’re satisfied. This awareness prevents overeating and will enable you to honour your body’s true hunger and fullness cues.
  • Find Alternative Coping Mechanisms: Explore alternative ways to cope with your emotions that don’t involve food. Engage in activities that bring you joy, such as practising yoga, going for a walk, listening to music, or engaging in creative hobbies. These healthy alternatives can help you manage emotions and reduce your reliance on food for comfort.
  • Build a Support System: Surround yourself with a supportive network of friends, family, or a professional counsellor who can offer guidance and encouragement. Sharing your struggles and successes with others can provide valuable insights and accountability on your journey to combat emotional eating.
  • Keep a Food and Mood Journal: Tracking your food intake and emotions in a journal can help you identify emotional eating triggers and patterns. By becoming aware of the connections between your emotions and eating habits, you can develop personalised strategies to break the cycle and make healthier choices.
  • Practice Self-Care: Prioritise self-care activities that nourish your mind, body, and soul. Engage in activities that reduce stress and promote relaxation, such as taking a bath, practising deep breathing exercises, or engaging in mindfulness or meditation. Taking care of yourself holistically helps reduce the need to turn to food for emotional relief.
  • Seek Professional Support: If emotional eating continues to be a challenge, consider seeking support from an accredited practising dietitian, therapist, or counsellor who specialises in emotional eating. They can provide personalised guidance and tools to help you develop a healthier relationship with food and emotions.


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